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National CFIDS Foundation — Ionizing Radiation and CFIDS/ME

Medical Research Papers and Highlights


0A:   Description of the Chronic Radiation Syndrome in humans irradiated in in the former Soviet Union by Reeves et. al. (1995):
This Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) paper focuses on the formal background and description for Chronic Radiation Syndrome that includes the clinical course for this illness and the development of encephalomyelitis. Note the term chosen by AFRRI as CRS or Chronic Radiation Syndrome. (PDF file)


0B:   Analysis of Chronic Radiation Sickness cases in the population of the southern Urals By Kossenko et. al.
Prepared under contract by Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine; Chelyabinsk, Russia. U.S. Defense Nuclear Agency Contract # DNA001-92-M-0658 dated August 1994:
This AFRRI contract report covers the description and information regarding Chronic Radiation Sickness as defined by Soviet scientists. Particularly noteworthy are the descriptions of symptoms of the illness, clinical stages associated with Chronic Radiation Sickness as well as their associated statistics and long-term effects of such exposure. Note that the Soviet scientists labeled this as Chronic Radiation Sickness. Chapters 5-9 are most informative and well worth the read. (PDF file)


1:   Psychophysiological, neuroimmune and gene expression changes in chronic fatigue syndrome after low-dose radiation exposure by Bazyka et. al.:
Following low-level internal and external radiation, mild cognitive disorder and abnormal EEG increased; verbal short-term memory, verbal learning, and proactive interference of verbal information deteriorated. Low dose radiation led to overactivation of the cortical limbic system mainly in the dominant (left) hemisphere. (PDF file)


2:   Vegetative-vascular dystonia and osteoalgetic syndrome or chronic fatigue syndrome as characteristic after-effect of radioecological disaster — The Chernobyl accident experience by Loganovsky:
The aim of this study was to determine whether the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) definition could be applicable to the assessment of the medical aftermath of radioecological disasters and to investigate a possible psychophysiological basis of fatigue in Chernobyl accident survivors. It was concluded that CFS is one of the most important consequences of radioecological disaster, which results from an interaction of different hazardous environmental factors. (PDF file)


3:   Do low doses of ionizing radiation affect the human brain by Loganovsky:
A hypothesis about the development of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) under the impact of low and very low doses combined with psychological stress has been suggested. CFS can be considered to be an environmentally induced predisposition and vestige of forthcoming neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, CFS and metabolic syndrome X are considered to be both radiation-associated syndromes and stages of other neuropsychiatric and physical pathology developments, and CFS can be transformed into metabolic syndrome X. Radiation-induced damage of mitochondrial DNA in post-mitotic tissues with low proliferation activity may be a basis for the effects of low doses in an increase of non-cancer morbidity and mortality in the Chernobyl accident survivors. Currently, post-radiation syndrome is proposed to be CFS or a chronic fatigue syndrome like illness, initiated by exposure to ionizing radiation. (PDF file)


4:   The Chernobyl catastrophe — Consequences on human health by Greenpeace
This major work that was published in 2006. Numerous references to radiation induced chronic fatigue syndrome are contained herein. (PDF file)


5:   Health effects of Chernobyl 25 years after the reactor catastrophe by the German Affiliate of International Physicians forthe Prevention of Nuclear War:
Published in 2011, this is another extensive report that mentions radiation induced chronic fatigue syndrome. (PDF file)


6:   ECRR Chernobyl — 20 years on — Health effects of theChernobyl accident by the European Committee on Radiation Risk:
This extensive work discusses many characteristics of the radiation effects at Chernobyl. Numerous references to radiation induced chronic fatigue syndrome are contained herein. (PDF file)


7:   Gulf War Illness and the health of Gulf War veterans — Scientific findings and recommendations by the Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses:
An extensive report published in 2008 with numerous references to chronic fatigue syndrome. Also includes Dr. Hokama's research findings that was funded by the National CFIDS Foundation. (PDF file)


8:   Radiation injuries after the Chernobyl accident — Management, outcome, and lessons learned by Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute:
This 2008 course mentions the connection of ionizing radiation exposure to chronic fatigue syndrome (pages 42 and 46). (PDF file)


9:   Longitudinal investigation of natural killer cells and cytokines in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis by Brenu et. al.:
Dr. Daniel Peterson, a CFIDS physician, is one of the authors. Compared to controls,the CFS/ME group had significantly lower numbers of CD56bright NK cells. (PDF file)


10:   Immunological abnormalities as potential biomarkers in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis by Brenu et. al.:
Dr. Nancy Klimas, a CFIDS physician, is one of the authors. The results showed that the CD56bright NK cells were significantly decreased in CFS/ME patients. (PDF file)


11:   Immune and hemorheological changes in chronic fatigue syndrome by Brenu et. al.:
CFS patients had significant decreases in CD56bright NK cells in comparison to healthy controls. (PDF file)


12:   Radiosensitivity of CD3-CD8+CD56+NK cells by Vokurkova et. al.:
The effect of lower doses of gamma radiation on radiosensitivity of NK cell subpopulations isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers was studied 48 hours after the irradiation. A dose-dependent and highly pronounced decrease in CD56bright NK cells was identified in irradiated blood samples. (PDF file)


13:   Uranium: Properties and biological effects after internal contamination by Souidi et. al.:
Uranium is a radionuclide present in the environment since the origin of the Earth. In addition to natural uranium, recent deposits from industrial or military activities are acknowledged. Uranium’s toxicity is due to a combination of its chemical (heavy metal) and radiological properties (emission of ionizing radiations). Acute toxicity induces an important weight loss and signs of renal and cerebral impairment. Alterations of bone growth, modifications of the reproductive system and carcinogenic effects are also often seen. On the contrary, the biological effects of a chronic exposure to low doses are unwell known. However, results from different recent studies suggest that a chronic contamination with low levels of uranium induces subtle but significant levels. Indeed, an internal contamination of rats for several weeks leads to detection of uranium in many cerebral structures, in association with an alteration of short-term memory and an increase of anxiety level. Biological effects of uranium on the metabolisms of xenobiotics, steroid hormones and vitamin D were described in the liver, testis and kidneys. These recent scientific data suggest that uranium could participate to increase of health risks linked to environmental pollution. (PDF file)


14:   Medical management of internally radiocontaminated patients by Marcus et. al. inconjunction with the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services Emergency Medical Services Agency:
This work describes the screening of patients for internal radiocontamination as well as the medical management of internal contamination by specific radionuclide. (PDF file)


14a:   Internal contamination with medically significant radionuclides by Asaf Durakovic, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI). (PDF file)
In this chapter, Dr. Durakovic discusses the radiation effects of internally deposited radionuclides via inhalation, ingestion or tissue injury. Dr. Asaf Durakovic and Dr. David Bell (CFIDS clinician) share space at the Lakeview Medical Office in Waterport NY.
Military Radiobiology; Conklin JJ, Walker RI; AFRRI; Academic Press, Chap 13: 241-264, 1987
Below is a link to a previous article published in the Forum.
World Famous CFIDS/ME Physician is Aware of Radiation Connection to Disease


14b:   Treatment of internal radionuclide contamination by Kalinich. (PDF file)
This chapter discusses various treatment options for internal radionuclide contamination as outlined by the U.S. Army.
Can also be found on the US Army Medical Department webpage under Medical Consequences of Radiological and Nuclear Weapons, Chapter 4: 73-81.


15:   The Experience of cancer-related fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: A qualitative and comparative study by Bennett et. al.:
Women with cancer-related fatigue (CRF) as the result of treatment due to breast cancer were compared to women with chronic fatigue syndrome. Analysis revealed a similar core set of symptoms, featuring fatigue, neurocognitive difficulties, and mood disturbances. Women with CFS reported additional symptoms including musculoskeletal pain and influenza-like manifestations. Both groups suffered disabling behavioral consequences of the symptom complex. Qualitatively, CRF appears closely related to CFS. (PDF file)


16:   Mechanisms of cancer-related fatigue by Ryan et. al.:
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most prevalent symptoms patients with cancer experience, both during and after treatment. CRF is pervasive and affects patients’ quality of life considerably. It is important, therefore, to understand the underlying pathophysiology of CRF in order to develop useful strategies for prevention and treatment. Evidential references are made to chronic fatigue syndrome. (PDF file)


17:   Cancer-related fatigue: a practical review by Campos et. al.:
Patients report fatigue as one of the most important and distressing symptoms related to cancer and its treatment and it is a strong and independent predictor of decreased overall patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life. This review offers insight into fatigue issues as well as information regarding non-pharmacological and pharmacological treaments. (PDF file)


18:   Impact of cancer-related fatigue on the lives of patients: New findings from the fatigue coalition by Curt et. al.:
Cancer-related fatigue is common among cancer patients who have received chemotherapy and results in substantial adverse physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences for both patients and caregivers. This article reviews the impact of fatigue and its suggested management. (PDF file)


19:   Cancer-related fatigue facts by the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society:
Estimates are that more than 50 percent of people who have cancer experience cancer-related fatigue (CRF). It is often said to be the most common and distressing symptom reported by people living with cancer. CRF interferes with a person’s ability to fulfill daily responsibilities and to enjoy life. It is a health problem that requires appropriate medical management. Compared with fatigue that healthy people experience, CRF is more severe, particularly relative to the person’s activity or level of exertion. CRF is also less likely to be relieved by sleep or rest. (PDF file)


20:   Cancer-Related Fatigue — The scale of the problem by Hofman et. al.:
Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is characterized by feelings of tiredness, weakness, and lack of energy, and is distinct from the “normal” drowsiness experienced by healthy individuals in that it is not relieved by rest or sleep. It occurs both as a consequence of the cancer itself and as a side effect of cancer treatment, although the precise underlying pathophysiology is largely unknown. CRF may be an early symptom of malignant disease and is reported by as many as 40% of patients at diagnosis. This is a great review of CRF. (PDF file)


21:   The biobehavioral and neuroimmune impact of low-dose ionizing radiation byYork et. al.:
In the clinical setting, repeated exposures to low-doses of ionizing radiation. Almost nothing is known, however, about the fatigue inducing effects of a single exposure to environmental low-dose ionizing radiation that might occur during high altitude commercial air flight, a nuclear reactor accident or a solar particle event. These findings indicate that low-dose ionizing radiation rapidly activates the neuroimmune system potentially causing early onset fatigue-like symptoms in mice. (PDF file)


22:   Chapter 8. Treatment and prophylaxis of ionizing radiation impact: Neuro-psychiatric consequences by Nyagu et. al.:
Neuro-psychiatric review and treatments related to ionizing radiation exposure. (PDF file)


23:   Hematologic consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation by Dainiak et. al.:
Ionizing radiation (IR) impairs hematopoiesis through a variety of mechanisms. IR exposure directly damages hematopoietic stem cells and alters the capacity of bone marrow stromal elements to support and/or maintain hematopoiesis in vivo and in vitro. In addition to damaging DNA, IR alters gene expression and transcription, and interferes with intracellular and intercellular signaling pathways. The clinical expression of these disturbances may be the development of leukemia. (PDF file)


24:   Review Article: First global consensus for evidence-based management of the hematopoietic syndrome resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation by Dainiak et. al.:
Hematopoietic syndrome (HS) is a clinical diagnosis assigned to people who present with >= 1 new onset cytopenias in the setting of acute radiation exposure. The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to evaluate the evidence and develop recommendations for medical countermeasures for the management of HS in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 individuals exposed to radiation. The objective of this consultancy was to develop recommendations for treatment of the HS based upon the quality of evidence. A strong recommendation was made for the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and a weak recommendation was made for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (PDF file)


25:   Predicting in silico which mixtures of the natural products of plants might most effectively kill human leukemia cells by El-Shemy et. al.:
This research is the direct result of a grant provided by the National CFIDS Foundation. The aim of the analysis of just 13 natural products of plants was to predict the most likely effective artificial mixtures of 2-3 most effective natural products on leukemia cells from over 364 possible mixtures. The natural product selected included resveratrol, honokiol, chrysin, limonene, cholecalciferol, cerulenin, aloe emodin, and salicin and had over 600 potential protein targets. Target profiling used the Ontomine set of tools for literature searches of potential binding proteins, binding constant predictions, binding site predictions, and pathway network pattern analysis. The analyses indicated that 6 of the 13 natural products predicted binding proteins which were important targets for established cancer treatments. Improvements in effectiveness were predicted for artificial combinations of 2 or 3 natural products. That effect might be attributed to drug synergism rather than increased numbers of binding proteins bound (dose effects). Among natural products, the combinations of aloe emodin with mevinolin and honokiol were predicted to be the most effective combination for AML-related predicted binding proteins. Therefore, plant extracts may in future provide more effective medicines than the single purified natural products of modern medicine, in some cases. (PDF file)


26:   High throughput screening identifies two classes of antibiotics as radioprotectors: Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones by Kim et. al.:
Discovery of agents that protect or mitigate normal tissue from radiation injury during radiotherapy, accidents, or terrorist attacks, is of importance. The results indicated that all of two major classes of antibiotics, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, were radioprotective. They can be robust radioprotectors and mitigators of the hematopoietic system with potential utility in anti-cancer radiotherapy and radiation emergencies. (PDF file)


27:   The autoimmune process in acute radiation sickness and the effect on antibiotics on its development by Temirgaliev et. al.:
Antibiotics affect the dynamics of the autoimmune process that results from radiation sickness by depressing the formation of autoantibodies in the host. (PDF file)


28:   Systems biology modeling of the radiation sensitivity network: A biomarker discovery platform byEschrich et. al.:
Radiation-specific biomarkers are used to improve the understanding of radiation exposure. Of the top 500 genes, a network platform was reduced to a 10 hub network that included STAT1 and other components of critical importance to radiation sensitivity. (PDF file)


29:   Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability by Morgan et. al.:
Radiation induces conditions and/or factors that stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These reactive intermediates then contribute to a chronic pro-oxidant environment that cycles over multiple generations, promoting chromosomal recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability. (PDF file)


30:   What mechanisms/processes underlie radiation-induced genomic instability by Karotki et. al.:
Radiation-induced genomic instability is a modification of the cell genome found in the progeny of irradiated somatic and germ cells but that is not confined on the initial radiation-induced damage and may occur de novo many generations after irradiation. Genomic instability in the germ line does not follow Mendelian segregation and may have unpredictable outcomes in every succeeding generation. This phenomenon, for which there is extensive experimental data and some evidence in human populations exposed to ionising radiation, is not taken into account in health risk assessments. (PDF file)


31:   Radiation chemistry; Effects of radiation On DNA and chromosomes by Held:
Excellent overview on radiation chemistry, effects and cellular damage including DNA and chromosomal impact.(PDF file)


32:   Persistent chromosome aberrations in irradiated human subjects by Bender et. al.:
Chromosomal abnormalities are shown in irradiated humans. (PDF file)


33:   Very low dose fetal exposure to Chernobyl contamination resulted in increases in infant leukemia in Europe and raises questions about current radiation risk models by Busby:
Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0–1 y) was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. An important discussion examines external versus internal radionuclide exposure calculations as related to radiation models. It was found that there was significant error in the conventional modeling for internal fetal exposures that reflects the infant leukemia risk. Furthermore, this work suggests that it is unsafe to predict risks from chronic exposure to internal radionuclides on the basis of external radiation doses. (PDF file)


34:   Public health management of radiation emergencies by David E. Bell:
A radiation emergency may be loosely defined as any event in which exposure to radiation has the potential for widespread harm. If causing a medical disaster, radiation emergencies may be characterized by a rapid ability to overwhelm medical resources, or for impacting societies to an extent that normal functioning is significantly altered. Given their medical consequences, radiation emergencies may challenge the very structure of healthcare as well as strongly underscore the need for public health management. David E. Bell is the son of CFIDS physician David S. Bell. (PDF file)


35:   Why Imatinib remains an exception of cancer research by Heng et. al.:
This paper discusses the success of Imatinib against chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This research was supported by a grant to Dr. Henry Heng from the National CFIDS Foundation and the Nancy Taylor Foundation for Chronic Diseases. (PDF file)


35a:   Dr. Henry Heng's published paper titled "Chromosomal instability: what it is and why it is crucial to cancer evolution." Heng was a recipient of a research grant from the National CFIDS Foundation, along with the Nancy Taylor Foundation for Chronic Diseases, to study a cohort of CFIDS/ME patients. Since the medical literature has suggested a greater risk for CFIDS/ME patients to develop cancer, chromosomal instability, which serves to further destabilize the genome, may prove to be the essential component necessary in the progression of this cancer process. (PDF file)


36:   Radiation-induced human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-R env gene expression by epigenetic control


37:   KHOU, a CBS affiliate in Houston, investigative report on radiation contamination in tap water in Texas (PDF file)


38:   Treatment of Nuclear Warfare Casualties and Low-Level Radiation Injuries by Headquarters, Department of the Army — 2000 (PDF file)


39:   Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute: Radiation Countermeasures — To develop pharmacological countermeasures to radiation injury that can be used by military personnel and emergency responders.


40:   American nuclear guinea pigs: Three decades of radiation experiments on U.S. citizens. (PDF file)
This report describes material contained in Department of Energy documents on radiation experiments using human subjects. A review of these documents reveals the frequent and systematic use of human subjects as guinea pigs for radiation experiments. Some of these experiments were conducted in the 1940's and 1950's, and others were performed during the supposedly more enlightened 1960's and 1970's. 99th Congress, 1986


41:   Examining how liability should be assessed for damages caused by low-level radiation effects which appear as cancer years after exposure — Part 1   Part 2 (PDF files)
This Congressional hearing covers discussions about the medical and legal ramifications for claims of radiation induced cancer as well as for claims for illness or injury arising from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources; United States Senate, 98th Congress — Sept 18, 1984.


42:   Medical consequences of nuclear warfare
Textbook of Military Medicine; Series on combat casualty care; Office of the Surgeon General; Department of the Army, United States of America; 443 pages, 1989
This extensive work covers nuclear events and the consequences thereof as written by government experts.
Due to the size of this document we have seperated it into chapters for downloading.
  1. Radiological Events and Their Consequences
  2. Acute Radiation Syndrome in Humans
  3. Triage and Treatment of Radiation and Combined-Injury Mass Casualties
  4. Treatment of Internal Radionuclide Contamination
  5. Therapy for Bacterial Infections Following Ionizing Radiation Injury
  6. Early-Phase Biological Dosimetry
  7. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Consequences of Radiation Exposure
  8. Psychological Issues in a Radiological or Nuclear Attack
  9. Late and Low-Level Effects of Ionizing Radiation
  10. Radiological Considerations in Medical Operations
  11. Perspectives in Radiological and Nuclear Countermeasures
  12. Cytogenetic Biodosimetry